Hair and scalp treatment has always been a cosmetic field of choice. Instrument of seduction for the female sex and representative element of vigor and youth for the male, a beautiful "flowing" hair always catches the attention. Hair care is an element of individual well-being but also of social communication.
The formulator of cosmetics for the hair and scalp must keep in mind that they act on a complex physiological system. Structured like a cylinder formed by coaxial layers, the hair is made up of the stem, the external visible part and the internal one, rooted in the skin, formed by bulb and matrix..
The stem is made up of three sections, with cells containing different types of keratin, the basic protein of the hair, nails and of the stratum corneum of the epidermis. The internal parts of the hair, matrix and bulb, are made up of continuous cells reproductive activities, which multiply by moving upwards, giving rise to the stem. Surrounding the bulb are the capillary blood vessels, from which the cells draw nutrients..
The sebaceous glands, organs of lubrication, are also grafted into it.
Hair has a life cycle that alternates phases of activity and reproductive rest that allows a gradual and continuous renewal. The cycle of each bulb seems in fact independent from the surrounding ones and, unlike the seasonal moult of the animals, humans under normal conditions do not change their hair all together. The well-being of the hair derives not only from a healthy organism, from the balance of the scalp, its secretions and blood circulation, as well as the resident microflora of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The properties of the stem, now made up of non-viable cells, depend on both from environmental exposure and from cosmetic treatments.
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